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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_____________________________
FORM 10-Q
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934.
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2021.
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934.
    For the transition period from                      to                     .
Commission file number: 001-38900
__________________________
THE PENNANT GROUP, INC.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Delaware
83-3349931
(State or Other Jurisdiction of(I.R.S. Employer
Incorporation or Organization)Identification No.)
1675 East Riverside Drive, Suite 150, Eagle, ID 83616
(Address of Principal Executive Offices and Zip Code)
(208) 506-6100
(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)
None
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)
________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per sharePNTGNasdaq Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filerNon-accelerated filerSmaller reporting companyEmerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by a check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No
As of May 6, 2021, 28,304,208 shares of the registrant’s common stock were outstanding.




Table of Contents
THE PENNANT GROUP, INC.
QUARTERLY REPORT ON FORM 10-Q
FOR THE THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, 2021
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Item 1A.
Risk Factors




Table of Contents
PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item I. Financial Statements
THE PENNANT GROUP, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(unaudited, in thousands, except par value)

March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Assets
Current assets:
Cash $5,605 $43 
Accounts receivable—less allowance for doubtful accounts of $861 and $643, respectively
50,756 47,221 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets15,338 12,335 
Total current assets71,699 59,599 
Property and equipment, net17,141 17,884 
Right-of-use assets306,151 308,650 
Escrow deposits 525 
Deferred tax assets1,969 2,097 
Restricted and other assets4,786 4,289 
Goodwill68,179 66,444 
Other indefinite-lived intangibles49,399 47,488 
Total assets$519,324 $506,976 
Liabilities and equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$8,581 $9,761 
Accrued wages and related liabilities20,977 26,873 
Operating lease liabilities—current14,606 14,106 
Other accrued liabilities44,276 38,275 
Total current liabilities88,440 89,015 
Long-term operating lease liabilities—less current portion294,255 296,615 
Other long-term liabilities6,939 11,897 
Long-term debt, net24,971 8,277 
Total liabilities414,605 405,804 
Commitments and contingencies
Equity:
Common stock, $0.001 par value; 100,000 shares authorized; 28,720 and 28,277 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2021, respectively, and 28,696 and 28,243 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2020, respectively.
28 28 
Additional paid-in capital87,305 84,671 
Retained earnings12,895 11,945 
Treasury stock, at cost, 3 shares at March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020
(65)(65)
Total Pennant Group, Inc. stockholders’ equity100,163 96,579 
Noncontrolling interest4,556 4,593 
Total equity104,719 101,172 
Total liabilities and equity$519,324 $506,976 

See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.

1


Table of Contents
THE PENNANT GROUP, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
(unaudited, in thousands, except for per-share amounts)


Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
Revenue$105,663 $91,849 
Expense
Cost of services83,622 70,189 
Rent—cost of services9,965 9,706 
General and administrative expense9,288 6,661 
Depreciation and amortization1,175 1,021 
Total expenses104,050 87,577 
Income from operations1,613 4,272 
Other expense:
Interest expense, net(360)(403)
Other expense, net(360)(403)
Income before provision for income taxes1,253 3,869 
Provision for income taxes340 889 
Net income913 2,980 
Less: net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest(37) 
Net income and other comprehensive income attributable to The Pennant Group, Inc. $950 $2,980 
Earnings per share:
Basic$0.03 $0.11 
Diluted$0.03 $0.10 
Weighted average common shares outstanding:
Basic28,291 27,891 
Diluted30,907 29,873 

See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.

2


Table of Contents
THE PENNANT GROUP, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
(unaudited, in thousands)
Common StockAdditional Paid-In CapitalRetained EarningsTreasury StockNon-Controlling Interest
SharesAmountSharesAmountTotal
Balance at December 31, 202028,696 $28 $84,671 $11,945 3 $(65)$4,593 $101,172 
Net income attributable to The Pennant Group, Inc.— — — 950 — — — 950 
Net loss attributable to Non-Controlling Interests— — — — — — (37)(37)
Stock-based compensation — — 2,416 — — — — 2,416 
Issuance of common stock from the exercise of stock options21 — 218 — — — — 218 
Issuance/ (cancellation) of restricted stock3 — — — — — — — 
Balance at March 31, 202128,720 $28 $87,305 $12,895 3 $(65)$4,556 $104,719 


Common StockAdditional Paid-In CapitalRetained Earnings/ (Accumulated Deficit)Treasury StockNon-Controlling Interest
SharesAmountSharesAmountTotal
Balance at December 31, 201928,435 $28 $74,882 $(3,799) $ $ $71,111 
Net income attributable to The Pennant Group, Inc.— — — 2,980 — — — 2,980 
Stock-based compensation— — 1,956 — — — — 1,956 
Issuance of common stock from the exercise of stock options38 — 138 — — — — 138 
Issuance/ (cancellation) of restricted stock3 — — — — — — — 
Balance at March 31, 202028,476 $28 $76,976 $(819) $ $ $76,185 

See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
3


Table of Contents
THE PENNANT GROUP, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(unaudited, in thousands)
Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net income$913 $2,980 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash (used in) provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization1,175 1,021 
Amortization of deferred financing fees87 82 
Provision for doubtful accounts261 186 
Share-based compensation2,416 1,956 
Deferred income taxes128  
Change in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable(3,795)(3,664)
Prepaid expenses and other assets(3,309)584 
Operating lease obligations639 2,091 
Accounts payable(930)(551)
Accrued wages and related liabilities(5,896)(3,408)
Other accrued liabilities1,305 813 
Other long-term liabilities(261) 
Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities(7,267)2,090 
Cash flows from investing activities:
Purchase of property and equipment(754)(2,916)
Cash payments for business acquisitions, net of escrow(3,100)(2,968)
Escrow deposits (700)
Other(141)(188)
Net cash used in investing activities(3,995)(6,772)
Cash flows from financing activities:
Proceeds from revolver agreement39,000 23,500 
Payments on revolver agreement(21,000)(14,500)
Payments for deferred financing costs(1,394)(26)
Issuance of common stock upon the exercise of options218 138 
Net cash provided by financing activities16,824 9,112 
Net increase in cash 5,562 4,430 
Cash beginning of period43 402 
Cash end of period$5,605 $4,832 

See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.

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THE PENNANT GROUP, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS - (Continued)
(unaudited, in thousands)
Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information:
Cash paid during the period for:
Interest$269 $483 
Income taxes$133 $ 
Lease liabilities$9,713 $8,092 
Right-of-use assets obtained in exchange for new operating lease obligations$1,678 $2,846 
Net non-cash adjustment to right-of-use assets and lease liabilities from lease modifications$ $233 
Non-cash investing activity:
Capital expenditures$250 $655 

See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.























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THE PENNANT GROUP INC.
NOTES TO THE CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(In thousands, except per share data and operational senior living units)


1. DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS
The Pennant Group, Inc. (herein referred to as “Pennant,” the “Company,” “it,” or “its”), is a holding company with no direct operating assets, employees or revenue. The Company, through its independent operating subsidiaries, provides healthcare services across the post-acute care continuum. As of March 31, 2021, the Company’s subsidiaries operated 80 home health, hospice and home care agencies and 54 senior living communities located in Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Iowa, Montana, Nevada, Oklahoma, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Washington, Wisconsin and Wyoming.

On October 1, 2019, The Ensign Group, Inc. (NASDAQ: ENSG) (“Ensign” or the “Parent”) completed the separation of Pennant (the “Spin-Off”). To accomplish the Spin-Off, Ensign contributed all of its home health and hospice and substantially all of its senior living businesses into Pennant. Each Ensign stockholder received a distribution of one share of Pennant’s common stock for every two shares of Ensign’s common stock, plus cash in lieu of fractional shares. The noncontrolling interest was converted into shares of Pennant at the established conversion ratio. As a result of the Spin-Off on October 1, 2019, Pennant began trading as an independent company on the NASDAQ under the symbol “PNTG.”
Certain of the Company’s subsidiaries, collectively referred to as the Service Center, provide accounting, payroll, human resources, information technology, legal, risk management, and other services to the operations through contractual relationships.
Each of the Company’s affiliated operations are operated by separate, independent subsidiaries that have their own management, employees and assets. References herein to the consolidated “Company” and “its” assets and activities is not meant to imply, nor should it be construed as meaning, that Pennant has direct operating assets, employees or revenue, or that any of the subsidiaries are operated by Pennant.

2. BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation - The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements of the Company (the “Interim Financial Statements”) reflect the Company’s financial position, results of operations and cash flows of the business. The Interim Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) and pursuant to the regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Management believes that the Interim Financial Statements reflect, in all material respects, all adjustments which are of a normal and recurring nature necessary to present fairly the Company’s financial position, results of operations, and cash flows for the periods presented in conformity with GAAP. The results reported in these Interim Financial Statements are not necessarily indicative of results that may be expected for the entire year.

The Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2020 is derived from the Company’s annual audited Consolidated Financial Statements for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 which should be read in conjunction with these Interim Financial Statements. Certain information in the accompanying footnote disclosures normally included in annual financial statements was condensed or omitted for the interim periods presented in accordance with GAAP.

All intercompany transactions and balances between the various legal entities comprising the Company have been eliminated in consolidation. The Company presents noncontrolling interests within the equity section of its condensed consolidated Balance Sheets and the amount of consolidated net income that is attributable to The Pennant Group, Inc. and the noncontrolling interest in its condensed consolidated Statements of Income.

The Company consists of various limited liability companies and corporations established to operate home health, hospice, home care, and senior living operations. The Interim Financial Statements include the accounts of all entities controlled by the Company through its ownership of a majority voting interest.

Estimates and Assumptions - The preparation of the Interim Financial Statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the Interim Financial Statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting periods. The most significant estimates in the Interim Financial Statements relate to revenue, intangible assets and goodwill, right-of-use assets and lease liabilities for leases greater than 12 months, self-insurance reserves, and income taxes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

CARES Act: The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”) was enacted on March 27, 2020 in the United States. The CARES Act allowed for deferred payment of the employer-paid portion of social security taxes
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THE PENNANT GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO THE CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS - (Continued)


through the end of 2020, with 50% due on December 31, 2021 and the remainder due on December 31, 2022. As of March 31, 2021, the Company deferred approximately $7,836 of the employer-paid portion of social security taxes, of which $3,918 is included in other long-term liabilities and the current portion of $3,918 in accrued wages and related liabilities. The CARES Act also expanded the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ (“CMS”) ability to provide accelerated/advance payments intended to increase the cash flow of healthcare providers and suppliers impacted by COVID-19. During the prior year the Company applied for and received $27,997 in funds under the Accelerated and Advance Payment (“AAP”) Program see Note 10, Other Accrued Liabilities for further discussion of the AAP.

The American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 (the “ARP Act”) was enacted on March 11, 2021 in the United States. The ARP Act was designed to assist the country with the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and included a number of tax components. The ARP Act’s primary tax impact on the Company is a new revenue raising provision that requires the Company to include the next five highest paid employees to the list of covered officers already subject to the IRC Section 162(m) wage limitation beginning in the 2027 tax year. The Company will continue to assess the effect of the ARP Act and ongoing other government legislation related to the COVID-19 pandemic that may be issued.

Recent Accounting Standards Adopted by the Company

FASB Accounting Standards Update, or ASU, ASU 2021-01 “Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Scope” or ASU 2020-4 - On January 7, 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-01 to amend the scope of the guidance in ASU 2020-04 “Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting” or ASU 2020-4. Specifically, the amendments in ASU 2021-01 clarify that “certain optional expedients and exceptions in Topic 848 for contract modifications and hedge accounting apply to derivatives that are affected by the discounting transition.” The amendment in ASU 2021-1 is available to all entities: (i) on a full retrospective basis as of any date from the beginning of an interim period that includes or is subsequent to March 12, 2020 through the date that the final update to the standard was issued or (ii) on a prospective basis for new contract modifications through December 31, 2022. The Company has adopted ASU 2021-01 on a prospective basis effective as of January 7, 2021. There was no material impact to the Company’s Interim Financial Statements or related disclosures as a result of the adoption of ASU 2021-01.

3. RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS
The Company leases 31 of its senior living communities from subsidiaries of Ensign, each of the leases have a term of between 14 and 20 years from the lease commencement date. The total amount of rent expense included in Rent - cost of services paid to subsidiaries of Ensign was $3,073 and $3,101 for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

The Company’s subsidiaries received services from Ensign’s subsidiaries. Services included in cost of services were $868 and $1,022 for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

Other related party activity with Ensign
On October 1, 2019, in connection with the Spin-Off, Pennant entered into several agreements with Ensign that set forth the principal actions taken or to be taken in connection with the Spin-Off and govern the relationship of the parties following the Spin-Off. The Company has incurred $988 and $1,336 in costs, net of the Company’s payroll reimbursement, related primarily to administrative support under the Transitions Services Agreement for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

4. COMPUTATION OF NET INCOME PER COMMON SHARE
Basic net income per share is computed by dividing income from net income attributable to stockholders of The Pennant Group, Inc. by the weighted average number of outstanding common shares for the period. The computation of diluted net income per share is similar to the computation of basic net income per share except that the denominator is increased to include the number of additional common shares that would have been outstanding if the dilutive potential common shares had been issued.


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THE PENNANT GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO THE CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS - (Continued)


The following table sets forth the computation of basic and diluted net income per share for the periods presented:

Three Months Ended March 31,
 20212020
Numerator:
Net income$913 $2,980 
Add: net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests(37) 
Net income attributable to The Pennant Group, Inc.$950 $2,980 
Denominator:
Weighted average shares outstanding for basic net income per share28,291 27,891 
Plus: assumed incremental shares from exercise of options and assumed conversion or vesting of restricted stock(a)
2,616 1,982 
Adjusted weighted average common shares outstanding for diluted income per share30,907 29,873 
Earnings Per Share:
Basic net income per common share$0.03 $0.11 
Diluted net income per common share$0.03 $0.10 

(a)
The calculation of dilutive shares outstanding excludes out-of-the-money stock options (i.e., such options’ exercise prices were greater than the average market price of our common shares for the period) because their inclusion would have been antidilutive. Options outstanding which are anti-dilutive and therefore not factored into the weighted average common shares amount above were immaterial for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020.


5. REVENUE AND ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE
Revenue is recognized when services are provided to the patients at the amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled from patients and third-party payors, including Medicaid, Medicare and insurers (private, Medicare Advantage and Medicare replacement plans), in exchange for providing patient care. The healthcare services in home health and hospice patient contracts include routine services in exchange for a contractual agreed-upon amount or rate. Routine services are treated as a single performance obligation satisfied over time as services are rendered. As such, patient care services represent a bundle of services that are not capable of being distinct within the context of the contract. Additionally, there may be ancillary services which are not included in the rates for routine services, but instead are treated as separate performance obligations satisfied at a point in time, if and when those services are rendered.

Revenue recognized from healthcare services are adjusted for estimates of variable consideration to arrive at the transaction price. The Company determines the transaction price based on contractually agreed-upon amounts or rate, adjusted for estimates of variable consideration. The Company uses the expected value method in determining the variable component that should be used to arrive at the transaction price, using contractual agreements and historical reimbursement experience within each payor type. The amount of variable consideration which is included in the transaction price may be constrained, and is included in the net revenue only to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of the cumulative revenue recognized will not occur in a future period. If actual amounts of consideration ultimately received differ from the Company’s estimates, the Company adjusts these estimates, which would affect net service revenue in the period such variances become known.

Revenue from the Medicare and Medicaid programs accounted for 64.0% of the Company’s revenue, for the three months ended March 31, 2021, and 57.9% for the three months ended March 31, 2020, respectively. The Company records revenue from these governmental and managed care programs as services are performed at their expected net realizable amounts under these programs. The Company’s revenue from governmental and managed care programs is subject to audit and retroactive adjustment by governmental and third-party agencies. Consistent with healthcare industry accounting practices, any changes to these governmental revenue estimates are recorded in the period the change or adjustment becomes known based on final settlement.

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THE PENNANT GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO THE CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS - (Continued)


Disaggregation of Revenue

The Company disaggregates revenue from contracts with its patients by reportable operating segments and payors. The Company has determined that disaggregating revenue into these categories achieves the disclosure objectives to depict how the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows are affected by economic factors.

The Company’s service specific revenue recognition policies are as follows:

Home Health Revenue

Medicare Revenue

For Medicare episodes that began after January 1, 2020, net service revenue is recognized in accordance with the Patient Driven Groupings Model (“PDGM”). This new reimbursement structure involves case mix calculation methodology refinements, changes to low-utilization payment adjustment (“LUPA”) thresholds, the elimination of therapy thresholds, a change to the unit of payment from a 60-day episode to a 30-day payment period, and reduction of requests for anticipated payments (“RAPs”) to 20% of the estimated payment for a patient’s initial or subsequent period of care up-front (after the initial assessment is completed and upon initial billing). The RAPs were phased out effective January 1, 2021. Under PDGM, Medicare provides agencies with payments for each 30-day payment period provided to beneficiaries. If a beneficiary is still eligible for care after the end of the first 30-day payment period, a second 30-day payment period can begin. There are no limits to the number of periods of care a beneficiary who remains eligible for the home health benefit can receive. While payment for each 30-day payment period is adjusted to reflect the beneficiary’s health condition and needs, a special outlier provision exists to ensure appropriate payment for those beneficiaries that have the most expensive care needs. The payment under the Medicare program is also adjusted for certain variables including, but not limited to: (a) a LUPA if the number of visits is below an established threshold that varies based on the diagnosis of a beneficiary; (b) a partial payment if the patient transferred to another provider or the Company received a patient from another provider before completing the period of care; (c) adjustment to the admission source of claim if it is determined that the patient had a qualifying stay in a post-acute care setting within 14 days prior to the start of a 30-day payment period; (d) the timing of the 30-day payment period provided to a patient in relation to the admission date, regardless of whether the same home health provider provided care for the entire series of episodes; (e) changes to the acuity of the patient during the previous 30-day payment period; (f) changes in the base payments established by the Medicare program; (g) adjustments to the base payments for case mix and geographic wages; and (h) recoveries of overpayments.

For all episodes that began prior to January 1, 2020, net service revenue was recorded under the Medicare prospective payment system based on a 60-day episode payment rate that is subject to adjustment based on certain variables including, but not limited to: (a) an outlier payment if the patient’s care was unusually costly; (b) a LUPA if the number of visits was fewer than five; (c) a partial payment if the patient transferred to another provider or transferred from another provider before completing the episode; (d) a payment adjustment based upon the level of covered therapy services; (e) the number of episodes of care provided to a patient, regardless of whether the same home health provider provided care for the entire series of episodes; (f) changes in the base episode payments established by the Medicare program; (g) adjustments to the base episode payments for case mix and geographic wages; and (h) recoveries of overpayments.

The Company adjusts Medicare revenue on completed episodes to reflect differences between estimated and actual payment amounts, an inability to obtain appropriate billing documentation and other reasons unrelated to credit risk. Therefore, the Company believes that its reported net service revenue and patient accounts receivable will be the net amounts to be realized from Medicare for services rendered.

In addition to revenue recognized on completed episodes and periods, the Company also recognizes a portion of revenue associated with episodes and periods in progress. Episodes in progress are 30-day payment periods, if the episode started after January 1, 2020, or 60-day episodes of care, if the episode started prior to January 1, 2020, that begin during the reporting period but were not completed as of the end of the period. As such, the Company estimates revenue and recognizes it on a daily basis. The primary factors underlying this estimate are the number of episodes in progress at the end of the reporting period, expected Medicare revenue per period of care or episode of care and the Company’s estimate of the average percentage complete based on the scheduled end of period and end of episode dates.
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THE PENNANT GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO THE CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS - (Continued)



Non-Medicare Revenue

Episodic Based Revenue - The Company recognizes revenue in a similar manner as it recognizes Medicare revenue for episodic-based rates that are paid by other insurance carriers, including Medicare Advantage programs. These rates can vary based upon the negotiated terms.

Non-episodic Based Revenue - Revenue is recognized on an accrual basis based upon the date of service at amounts equal to its established or estimated per visit rates, as applicable.

Hospice Revenue

Revenue is recognized on an accrual basis based upon the date of service at amounts equal to the estimated payment rates. The estimated payment rates are calculated as daily rates for each of the levels of care the Company delivers. Revenue is adjusted for an inability to obtain appropriate billing documentation or authorizations acceptable to the payor and other reasons unrelated to credit risk. Additionally, as Medicare hospice revenue is subject to an inpatient cap and an overall payment cap, the Company monitors its provider numbers and estimates amounts due back to Medicare if a cap has been exceeded. The Company regularly evaluates and records these adjustments as a reduction to revenue and an increase to other accrued liabilities.

Senior Living Revenue

The Company has elected the lessor practical expedient within ASC Topic 842, Leases (“ASC 842”) and therefore recognizes, measures, presents, and discloses the revenue for services rendered under the Company’s senior living residency agreements based upon the predominant component, either the lease or non-lease component, of the contracts. The Company has determined that the services included under the Company’s senior living residency agreements each have the same timing and pattern of transfer. The Company recognizes revenue under ASC Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers for its senior residency agreements, for which it has determined that the non-lease components of such residency agreements are the predominant component of each such contract.

The Company’s senior living revenue consists of fees for basic housing and assisted living care. Accordingly, the Company records revenue when services are rendered on the date services are provided at amounts billable to individual residents. Residency agreements are generally for a term of 30 days, with resident fees billed monthly in advance. For residents under reimbursement arrangements with Medicaid, revenue is recorded based on contractually agreed-upon amounts or rates on a per resident, daily basis or as services are rendered.

Revenue By Payor

Revenue by payor for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, is summarized in the following tables:

Three Months Ended March 31, 2021
Home Health and Hospice Services
Home Health ServicesHospice ServicesSenior Living ServicesTotal RevenueRevenue %
Medicare$20,330 $33,409 $ $53,739 50.9 %
Medicaid2,196 2,725 8,932 13,853 13.1 
Subtotal22,526 36,134 8,932 67,592 64.0 
Managed care10,452 637  11,089 10.5 
Private and other(a)
4,715 143 22,124 26,982 25.5 
Total revenue$37,693 $36,914 $31,056 $105,663 100.0 %

(a)Private and other payors in our home health and hospice services segment includes revenue from all payors generated in our home care operations.

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THE PENNANT GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO THE CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS - (Continued)


Three Months Ended March 31, 2020
Home Health and Hospice Services
Home Health ServicesHospice ServicesSenior Living ServicesTotal RevenueRevenue %
Medicare$12,576 $26,680 $ $39,256 42.7 %
Medicaid1,590 3,329 9,033 13,952 15.2 
Subtotal14,166 30,009 9,033 53,208 57.9 
Managed care7,116 416  7,532 8.2 
Private and other(a)
5,040 15 26,054 31,109 33.9 
Total revenue$26,322 $30,440 $35,087 $91,849 100.0 %

(a)Private and other payors in our home health and hospice services segment includes revenue from all payors generated in our home care operations.

Balance Sheet Impact

Included in the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets are contract assets, comprised of billed accounts receivable and unbilled receivables, which are the result of the timing of revenue recognition, billings and cash collections, as well as, contract liabilities, which primarily represent payments the Company receives in advance of services provided. As of March 31, 2021, the Company had contract liabilities in the amount of $27,997 related to Advance Payments received in connection with the CARES Act reported in other current liabilities. As further discussed in Note 10, Other Accrued Liabilities, the repayment terms for Medicare advance payments were modified through the passage of the Continuing Appropriations Act, 2021 and Other Extensions Act on October 1, 2020.

Accounts receivable, net as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020 is summarized in the following table:

March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Medicare$29,761 $28,569 
Medicaid8,180 7,669 
Managed care9,819 7,590 
Private and other3,857 4,036 
Accounts receivable, gross51,617 47,864 
Less: allowance for doubtful accounts(861)(643)
Accounts receivable, net$50,756 $47,221 

Practical Expedients and Exemptions

As the Company’s contracts have an original duration of one year or less, the Company uses the practical expedient applicable to its contracts and does not consider the time value of money. Further, because of the short duration of these contracts, the Company has not disclosed the transaction price for the remaining performance obligations as of the end of each reporting period or when the Company expects to recognize this revenue. In addition, the Company has applied the practical expedient provided by ASC 340, Other Assets and Deferred Costs (“ASC 340”), and all incremental customer contract acquisition costs are expensed as they are incurred because the amortization period would have been one year or less.

6. BUSINESS SEGMENTS
The Company classifies its operations into the following reportable operating segments: (1) home health and hospice services, which includes the Company’s home health, hospice and home care businesses; and (2) senior living services, which includes the operation of assisted living, independent living and memory care communities. The reporting segments are business units that offer different services and are managed separately to provide greater visibility into those operations. Our Chief Executive Officer, who is our Chief Operating Decision Maker (“CODM”), reviews financial information at the operating segment level. We also report an “all other” category that includes general and administrative expense from our Service Center.

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THE PENNANT GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO THE CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS - (Continued)


As of March 31, 2021, the Company provided services through 80 affiliated home health, hospice and home care agencies, and 54 affiliated senior living operations. The Company evaluates performance and allocates capital resources to each segment based on an operating model that is designed to maximize the quality of care provided and profitability. The Company’s Service Center provides various services to all lines of business. The Company does not review assets by segment and therefore assets by segment are not disclosed below.

The CODM uses Segment Adjusted EBITDAR from Operations as the primary measure of profit and loss for the Company's reportable segments and to compare the performance of its operations with those of its competitors. Segment Adjusted EBITDAR from Operations is net income/ (loss) attributable to the Company's reportable segments excluding interest expense, provision for income taxes, depreciation and amortization expense, rent, and, in order to view the operations performance on a comparable basis from period to period, certain adjustments including: (1) costs at start-up operations, (2) share-based compensation, (3) acquisition related costs, (4) redundant and nonrecurring costs associated with the transition services agreement, and (5) net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest. General and administrative expenses are not allocated to the reportable segments, and are included as “All Other”, accordingly the segment earnings measure reported is before allocation of corporate general and administrative expenses. The Company's segment measures may be different from the calculation methods used by other companies and, therefore, comparability may be limited.
The following table presents certain financial information regarding our reportable segments, general and administrative expenses are not allocated to the reportable segments and are included in “All Other” for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020:

Home Health and Hospice ServicesSenior Living ServicesAll OtherTotal
Three Months Ended March 31, 2021
Revenue$74,607 $31,056 $ $105,663 
Segment Adjusted EBITDAR from Operations$13,791 $8,834 $(6,398)$16,227 
Three Months Ended March 31, 2020
Revenue$56,762 $35,087 $ $91,849 
Segment Adjusted EBITDAR from Operations$9,729 $12,397 $(4,782)$17,344 

This table provides a reconciliation of Segment Adjusted EBITDAR from Operations to income from operations:

Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
Segment Adjusted EBITDAR from Operations$16,227 $17,344 
Less: Depreciation and amortization1,175 1,021 
Rent—cost of services9,965 9,706 
Adjustments to Segment EBITDAR from Operations:
Less: Costs at start-up operations(a)
112 232 
Share-based compensation expense(b)
2,416 1,956 
Acquisition related costs(c)
7  
Transition services costs(d)
902 157 
Add: Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest(37) 
Condensed Consolidated Income from Operations$1,613 $4,272 

Note: Beginning in the first quarter of fiscal year 2021, we updated our definition of Segment Adjusted EBITDAR to no longer include an adjustment for COVID-19 expenses offset by the amount of sequestration relief. COVID-19 expenses continue to be part of daily operations for which less specific identification is visible. Furthermore, the sequestration relief has been extended through December 31, 2021. Sequestration relief was $948 for the three months ended March 31, 2021. There was no adjustment for COVID-19 expenses offset by the amount of sequestration relief for the three months ended March 31, 2020.
(a)Represents results related to start-up operations. This amount excludes rent and depreciation and amortization expense related to such operations.
(b)Share-based compensation expense incurred which is included in cost of services and general and administrative expense.
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THE PENNANT GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO THE CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS - (Continued)


(c)Acquisition related costs that are not capitalizable.
(d)
A portion of the costs incurred under the Transition Services Agreement (as defined in Note 3, Related Party Transactions) identified as redundant or nonrecurring that are included in general and administrative expense. Fees incurred under the Transition Services agreement, net of the Company’s payroll reimbursement, were $988 and $1,336 for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2020, we updated our Transition service costs adjustment to include duplicate software costs. The prior year transition service costs adjustment has been recast to reflect the change. The adjustment to the prior year transition service costs was $107 for the duplicative software costs for the three months ended March 31, 2020 that were included in the 2020 full year amount in the Company’s as filed Form 10-K.


7. ACQUISITIONS
The Company’s acquisition focus is to purchase or lease operations that are complementary to the Company’s current businesses, accretive to the Company’s business or otherwise advance the Company’s strategy. The results of all the Company’s independent operating subsidiaries are included in the Interim Financial Statements subsequent to the date of acquisition. Acquisitions are accounted for using the acquisition method of accounting.

2021 Acquisitions

During the three months ended March 31, 2021, the Company expanded its operations with the addition of two home health and two hospice agencies. The aggregate purchase price for these acquisitions was $3,685. A subsidiary of the Company entered into a separate operations transfer agreement with the prior operator of each acquired operation as part of each transaction.

The fair value of assets for home health acquisitions was mostly concentrated in goodwill and as such, these transactions were classified as business combinations in accordance with ASC Topic 805, Business Combinations (“ASC 805”). The purchase price for the business combinations was $3,100, which consisted of equipment and other assets of $39, goodwill of $1,735, and indefinite-lived intangible assets of $1,326 related to Medicare and Medicaid licenses. The Company anticipates that the total goodwill recognized will be fully deductible for tax purposes. There were no material acquisition costs that were expensed related to the business combinations during the three months ended March 31, 2021.

The hospice agencies were acquired Medicare licenses and are considered asset acquisitions. The fair value of assets for the hospice licenses acquired totaled $585 and was allocated to indefinite-lived intangible assets.

2020 Acquisitions

During the three months ended March 31, 2020, the Company expanded its operations with the addition of one home health agencies, one hospice agencies, and two senior living communities. The aggregate purchase price for these acquisitions was $2,968. In connection with the addition of the senior living communities, the Company entered into new long-term “triple-net” leases with subsidiaries of Ensign. The addition of these operations added a total of 164 operational senior living units to be operated by the Company’s independent operating subsidiaries. A subsidiary of the Company entered into a separate operations transfer agreement with the prior operator of each acquired operation as part of each transaction.

The fair value of assets for all home health, hospice and home care acquisitions was concentrated in goodwill and as such, these transactions were classified as business combinations in accordance with ASC 805. The purchase price for the business combinations was $2,968, which mostly consisted of equipment of $20, goodwill of $1,604, indefinite-lived intangible assets of $1,363 related to Medicare and Medicaid licenses, net of assumed liabilities of $19. The majority of total goodwill recognized is fully deductible for tax purposes. There were no acquisition costs that were expensed related to the business combinations of home health, hospice, and home care during the three months ended March 31, 2020.

Subsequent Events

Subsequent to March 31, 2021, the Company announced it closed on two acquisitions of providers of home health and home care services. The acquisitions added three home health and two home care agencies throughout Southwest Colorado and Texas. The combined purchase price for the home health and home care agencies was $5,000. As of the date of this report, the preliminary allocation of the purchase price for the acquisitions acquired subsequent to March 31, 2021 were not completed as necessary valuation information was not yet available. As such, the determination regarding whether these acquisitions should be classified as business combinations or asset acquisitions under ASC 805 will be determined upon completion of the allocation of the purchase price.

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THE PENNANT GROUP, INC.
NOTES TO THE CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS - (Continued)


8. PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT—NET
Property and equipment, net consist of the following:

March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Leasehold improvements$10,174 $9,984 
Equipment22,690 22,420 
Furniture and fixtures1,186 1,186 
34,050 33,590 
Less: accumulated depreciation(16,909)(15,706)
Property and equipment, net$17,141 $17,884 

Depreciation expense was $1,171 for the three months ended March 31, 2021, and $1,018 for the three months ended March 31, 2020.

The Company measures certain assets at fair value on a non-recurring basis, including long-lived assets, which are evaluated for impairment. Long-lived assets include assets such as property and equipment, operating lease assets and certain intangible assets. The inputs used to determine the fair value of long-lived assets and a reporting unit are considered Level 3 measurements due to their subjective nature. Management has evaluated its long-lived assets and determined there was no impairment during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020.

9. GOODWILL AND OTHER INDEFINITE-LIVED INTANGIBLE ASSETS
The following table represents activity in goodwill by segment as of and for the three months ended March 31, 2021:

Home Health and Hospice ServicesSenior Living ServicesTotal
December 31, 2020$62,802 $3,642 $66,444 
Additions1,735  1,735 
March 31, 2021$64,537 $3,642 $68,179 

Other indefinite-lived intangible assets consist of the following:

March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Trade name$1,355 $1,355 
Medicare and Medicaid licenses48,044 46,133 
Total$49,399 $47,488 

As of March 31, 2021, we evaluated potential triggering events that might be indicators that our goodwill and indefinite lived intangibles were impaired. The Company concluded that the current economic and business conditions did not result in a triggering event requiring a quantitative goodwill impairment analysis. No goodwill or intangible asset impairments were recorded during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020.

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10. OTHER ACCRUED LIABILITIES
Other accrued liabilities consist of the following:

March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Refunds payable$2,515 $2,664 
Deferred revenue1,498 1,271 
Resident deposits5,623 5,647 
Contract Liabilities (CARES Act advance payments)27,997 22,771 
Property taxes872 982 
Accrued self-insurance liabilities - current portion1,597 1,354 
Other4,174 3,586 
Other accrued liabilities$44,276 $38,275 

Refunds payable includes payables related to overpayments, duplicate payments and credit balances from various payor sources. Deferred revenue occurs when the Company receives payments in advance of services provided. Resident deposits include refundable deposits to residents and a small portion consists of non-refundable deposits recognized into revenue over a period of time. The CARES Act also expanded the ability of CMS to provide accelerated/advance payments intended to increase the cash flow of healthcare providers and suppliers impacted by COVID-19. During the prior year the Company applied for and received $27,997 in funds under the AAP Program. On October 1, 2020, the Continuing Appropriations Act, 2021 and Other Extensions Act (the “CA Act”) was signed into law. Among other things, the CARES Act significantly changed the repayment terms for AAP. In April 2021 Medicare began automatic recoupment of these amounts through offsets to new claims. Medicare will automatically recoup 25 percent of Medicare payments for 11 months. At the end of the 11 months and assuming full repayment has not occurred, recoupment will increase to 50 percent for another six months. Any balance outstanding after these two recoupment periods will be subject to repayment at a four percent interest rate. The Company anticipates completing repayment of the AAP within the allotted recoupment periods.

11. DEBT
Long-term debt, net consists of the following:
March 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Revolving Credit Facility$27,500 $9,500 
Less: unamortized debt issuance costs(a)
(2,529)(1,223)
Long-term debt, net$24,971 $8,277 

(a)
Amortization expense for debt issuance costs was $87 and $82 for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 respectively, and is recorded in interest expense, net on the condensed consolidated statements of income.

On October 1, 2019, Pennant originally entered into a credit agreement with a borrowing capacity of $75,000. On February 23, 2021, Pennant entered into an amendment to the Credit Agreement (the “Amended Credit Agreement”), which provides for a revolving credit facility (the “2021 Revolving Credit Facility”) with a syndicate of banks with a borrowing capacity of $150,000. The interest rates applicable to loans under the 2021 Revolving Credit Facility are, at the Company’s election, either (i) Adjusted LIBOR (as defined in the Amended Credit Agreement) plus a margin ranging from 2.3% to 3.3% per annum or (ii) Base Rate plus a margin ranging from 1.3% to 2.3% per annum, in each case based on the ratio of Consolidated Total Net Debt to Consolidated EBITDA (each, as defined in the Amended Credit Agreement). In addition, Pennant pays a commitment fee on the undrawn portion of the commitments under the Revolving Credit Facility which ranges from 0.35% to 0.50% per annum, depending on the Consolidated Total Net Debt to Consolidated EBITDA ratio of the Company and its subsidiaries. The Company is not required to repay any loans under the Amended Credit Agreement prior to maturity in 2026, other than to the extent the outstanding borrowings exceed the aggregate commitments under the Credit Agreement. As of March 31, 2021, the Company’s weighted average interest rate on its outstanding debt was 3.33%. As of March 31, 2021, the Company had available borrowing on the Revolving Credit Facility of $119,164, which is net of outstanding letters of credit of $3,336.

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The fair value of the Company’s Revolving Credit Facility approximates carrying value, due to the short-term nature and variable interest rates. The fair value of this debt is categorized within Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy based on the observable market borrowing rates.

The Credit Agreement is guaranteed, jointly and severally, by certain of the Company’s independent operating subsidiaries, and is secured by a pledge of stock of the Company's material independent operating subsidiaries as well as a first lien on substantially all of each material operating subsidiary's personal property. The Credit Agreement contains customary covenants that, among other things, restrict, subject to certain exceptions, the ability of the Company and its independent operating subsidiaries to grant liens on their assets, incur indebtedness, sell assets, make investments, engage in acquisitions, mergers or consolidations, amend certain material agreements and pay certain dividends and other restricted payments. Financial covenants require compliance with certain levels of leverage ratios that impact the amount of interest. As of March 31, 2021, the Company was compliant with all such financial covenants.

12. OPTIONS AND AWARDS
Outstanding options held by employees of the Company under the Ensign stock plans (collectively the “Ensign Plans”) and outstanding options and restricted stock awards under the Company Subsidiary Equity Plan (together with the Ensign Plans the “Pre-Spin Plans”) were modified and replaced with Pennant awards under the Pennant Plans at the Spin-Off date. Additionally, in connection with the Spin-Off, the Company issued new options and restricted stock awards to Pennant and Ensign employees under the 2019 Omnibus Incentive Plan (the OIP) and Long-Term Incentive Plan (the LTIP”, together referred to as the “Pennant Plans”).

Under the Ensign Plans and the Pennant Plans, stock-based payment awards, including employee stock options, restricted stock awards (“RSA”), and restricted stock units (“RSU” and together with RSA, “Restricted Stock”) are issued based on estimated fair value. The following disclosures represent share-based compensation expense relating to employees of the Company’s subsidiaries who have awards under the Ensign and Pennant Plans.

Total share-based compensation expense for all Plans for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 was:

Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
Share-based compensation expense related to stock options$637 $289 
Share-based compensation expense related to Restricted Stock1,520 1,543 
Share-based compensation expense related to Restricted Stock to non-employee directors259 124 
Total share-based compensation$2,416 $1,956 

In future periods, the Company estimates it will recognize the following share-based compensation expense for unvested stock options and unvested Restricted Stock, which were unvested as of March 31, 2021:

Unrecognized Compensation ExpenseWeighted Average Recognition Period (in years)
Unvested stock options$11,882 4.2
Unvested Restricted Stock9,433 1.6
Total unrecognized share-based compensation expense$21,315 

Stock Options

Under the Pennant Plans, options granted to employees of the subsidiaries of Pennant generally vest over five years at 20% per year on the anniversary of the grant date. Options expire ten years after the date of grant.

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The Company uses the Black-Scholes option-pricing model to recognize the value of stock-based compensation expense for share-based payment awards under the Plans. Determining the appropriate fair-value model and calculating the fair value of stock-based awards at the grant date requires considerable judgment, including estimating stock price volatility and expected option life. The Company develops estimates based on historical data and market information, which can change significantly over time.

The fair value of each option is estimated on the grant date using a Black-Scholes option-pricing model with the following weighted average assumptions for stock options granted after the Spin-Off:
Grant YearOptions GrantedRisk-Free Interest Rate
Expected Life(a)
Expected Volatility(b)
Dividend YieldWeighted Average Fair Value of Options
2021137 1.0 %6.537.8 % %$18.99 
2020169 0.7 %6.535.8 % %$9.21 

(a)
Under the midpoint method, the expected option life is the midpoint between the contractual option life and the average vesting period for the options being granted. This resulted in an expected option life of 6.5 years for the options granted.
(b)Because the Company’s equity shares have been traded for a relatively short period of time, expected volatility assumption was based on the volatility of related industry stocks.

The following table represents the employee stock option activity during the three months ended March 31, 2021:

Number of
Options
Outstanding
Weighted
Average
Exercise Price
Number of
Options Vested
Weighted
Average
Exercise Price
of Options
Vested
December 31, 20201,982 $17.48 615 $7.52 
Granted137 48.78 
Exercised(21)10.58 
Forfeited(15)24.11 
March 31, 20212,083 $19.56 640 $7.96 

Restricted Stock

A summary of the status of Pennant’s non-vested Restricted Stock, and changes during the three months ended March 31, 2021, is presented below:
Non-Vested Restricted StockWeighted Average Grant Date Fair Value
December 31, 20201,635 $14.80 
Granted5 57.54 
Vested(18)21.98 
Forfeited(2)14.77 
March 31, 20211,620 $14.84 

13. LEASES
The Company’s independent operating subsidiaries lease 54 senior living communities and its administrative offices under non-cancelable operating leases, most of which have initial lease terms ranging from five to 21 years. Most of these leases contain renewal options, most involve rent increases and none contain purchase options. The lease term excludes lease renewals because the renewal rents are not at a bargain, there are no economic penalties for the Company to renew the lease, and it is not reasonably certain that the Company will exercise the extension options. As of March 31, 2021, the Company’s independent operating subsidiaries leased 31 communities from subsidiaries of Ensign (the “Ensign Leases”) under a master lease arrangement. The existing leases with subsidiaries of Ensign are generally for initial terms of between 14 to 20 years. In
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addition to rent, each of the operating companies are required to pay the following: (1) all impositions and taxes levied on or with respect to the leased properties (other than taxes on the income of the lessor); (2) all utilities and other services necessary or appropriate for the leased properties and the business conducted on the leased properties; (3) all insurance required in connection with the leased properties and the business conducted on the leased properties; (4) all community maintenance and repair costs; and (5) all fees in connection with any licenses or authorizations necessary or appropriate for the leased properties and the business conducted on the leased properties.
Fifteen of the Company’s affiliated senior living communities, excluding the communities that are operated under the Ensign Leases (as defined herein), are operated under two separate master lease arrangements. Under these master leases, a breach at a single community could subject one or more of the other communities covered by the same master lease to the same default risk. Failure to comply with Medicare and Medicaid provider requirements is a default under several of the Company’s leases and master leases. With an indivisible lease, it is difficult to restructure the composition of the portfolio or economic terms of the master lease without the consent of the landlord.

The components of operating lease cost, are as follows:

Three Months Ended March 31,
20212020
Operating Lease Costs:
Facility Rent—cost of services$8,835 $8,856 
Office Rent—cost of services1,130 850 
Rent—cost of services$9,965 $9,706 
General and administrative expense$64 $30 
Variable lease cost (a)
$1,499 $1,329 

(a)
Represents variable lease cost for operating leases, which costs include property taxes and insurance, common area maintenance, and consumer price index increases, incurred as part of our triple net lease, and which is included in cost of services for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020.

The following table shows the lease maturity analysis for all leases as of March 31, 2021, for the years ended December 31:
YearAmount
2021 (Remainder)$29,073 
202238,171 
202337,452 
202436,546 
202535,607 
Thereafter356,846 
Total lease payments533,695 
Less: present value adjustments(224,834)
Present value of total lease liabilities308,861 
Less: current lease liabilities(14,606)
Long-term operating lease liabilities$294,255 

Operating lease liabilities are based on the net present value of the remaining lease payments over the remaining lease term. In determining the present value of lease payments, the Company used its incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at each lease’s commencement date to determine each lease's operating lease liability. As of March 31, 2021, the weighted average remaining lease term is 14.8 years and the weighted average discount rate is 8.2%.

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14. INCOME TAXES
The Company recorded income tax expense of $340 for the three months ended March 31, 2021, and income tax expense of $889 during the three months ended March 31, 2020, or 27.1% of earnings before income taxes for the three months ended March 31, 2021, compared to 23.0% of earnings before income taxes for the three months ended March 31, 2020. The effective tax rate for both three-month periods includes excess tax benefits from share-based compensation which were offset by non-deductible expenses including non-deductible compensation.

15. COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
Regulatory Matters - The Company provides services in complex and highly regulated industries. The Company’s compliance with applicable U.S. federal, state and local laws and regulations governing these industries may be subject to governmental review and adverse findings may result in significant regulatory action, which could include sanctions, damages, fines, penalties (many of which may not be covered by insurance), and even exclusion from government programs. The Company is a party to various regulatory and other governmental audits and investigations in the ordinary course of business and cannot predict the ultimate outcome of any federal or state regulatory survey, audit or investigation. While governmental audits and investigations are the subject of administrative appeals, the appeals process, even if successful, may take several years to resolve. The Department of Justice, CMS, or other federal and state enforcement and regulatory agencies may conduct additional investigations related to the Company's businesses. The Company believes that it is presently in compliance in all material respects with all applicable laws and regulations.

Cost-Containment Measures - Government and third-party payors have instituted cost-containment measures designed to limit payments made to providers of healthcare services, and there can be no assurance that future measures designed to limit payments made to providers will not adversely affect the Company.

Indemnities - From time to time, the Company enters into certain types of contracts that contingently require the Company to indemnify parties against third-party claims. These contracts primarily include (i) certain real estate leases, under which the Company may be required to indemnify property owners or prior operators for post-transfer environmental or other liabilities and other claims arising from the Company’s use of the applicable premises, (ii) operations transfer agreements, in which the Company agrees to indemnify past operators of agencies and communities the Company acquires against certain liabilities arising from the transfer of the operation and/or the operation thereof after the transfer, (iii) certain Ensign lending agreements, and (iv) certain agreements with management, directors and employees, under which the subsidiaries of the Company may be required to indemnify such persons for liabilities arising out of their employment relationships. The terms of such obligations vary by contract and, in most instances, a specific or maximum dollar amount is not explicitly stated therein. Generally, amounts under these contracts cannot be reasonably estimated until a specific claim is asserted. Consequently, because no claims have been asserted, no liabilities have been recorded for these obligations on the Company’s condensed consolidated Balance Sheets for any of the periods presented.

Litigation - The Company’s businesses involve a significant risk of liability given the age and health of the patients and residents served by its independent operating subsidiaries. The Company, its operating companies, and others in the industry may be subject to a number of claims and lawsuits, including professional liability claims, alleging that services provided have resulted in personal injury, elder abuse, wrongful death or other related claims. Healthcare litigation (including class action litigation) is common and is filed based upon a wide variety of claims and theories, and the Company is routinely subjected to these claims in the ordinary course of business, including potential claims related to patient care and treatment, and professional negligence, as well as employment related claims. If there were a significant increase in the number of these claims or an increase in amounts owing should plaintiffs be successful in their prosecution of these claims, this could materially adversely affect the Company’s business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, the defense of these lawsuits may result in significant legal costs, regardless of the outcome, and may result in large settlement amounts or damage awards.

In addition to the potential lawsuits and claims described above, the Company is also subject to potential lawsuits under the False Claims Act (the “FCA”) and comparable state laws alleging submission of fraudulent claims for services to any healthcare program (such as Medicare) or payor. A violation may provide the basis for exclusion from federally funded healthcare programs. Such exclusions could have a correlative negative impact on the Company’s financial performance. Some states, including California, Arizona and Texas, have enacted similar whistleblower and false claims laws and regulations. In addition, the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 created incentives for states to enact anti-fraud legislation modeled on the FCA. As such, the Company could face increased scrutiny, potential liability and legal expenses and costs based on claims under state false claims acts in markets in which it conducts business.
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In May 2009, Congress passed the Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act (“FERA”) which made significant changes to the FCA, expanding the types of activities subject to prosecution and whistleblower liability. Following changes by FERA, healthcare providers face significant penalties for the knowing retention of government overpayments, even if no false claim was involved. Providers can now be liable for knowingly and improperly avoiding or decreasing an obligation to pay money or property to the government, including the retention of any government overpayment. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (the “ACA”) supplemented FERA by imposing an affirmative obligation on healthcare providers to return an overpayment to CMS within 60 days of “identification” or the date any corresponding cost report is due, whichever is later. According to CMS’s February 12, 2016, final rule with respect to Medicare Parts A and B, providers have an obligation to proactively exercise “reasonable diligence” to identify overpayments. The 60-day clock begins to run after the reasonable diligence period has concluded, which may take, at most, six months from the receipt of credible information. Retention of any overpayment beyond this period may create liability under the FCA. In addition, FERA extended protections against retaliation for whistleblowers, including protections not only for employees, but also contractors and agents. Thus, there is generally no need for an employment relationship in order to qualify for protection against retaliation for whistleblowing.